Shenzhen HSJ Metal Fabrication Co., Ltd.
Shenzhen HSJ Metal Fabrication Co., Ltd.

What Is Stamping In Sheet Metal: A Comprehensive Guide

Sheet metal stamping is a manufacturing method that transforms flat metal sheets into desired shapes. It involves a series of intricate metal forming techniques, including blanking, punching, bending, and piercing.

What Is Sheet Metal Stamping?

Metal stamping, also known as metal pressing, is a process in which flat sheet metal is fed into a stamping press and transformed into a predetermined shape using pressure and dies. Sheet metal stampings are widely used in various industries, such as petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics, electrical appliances, communications, automotive, and medical equipment due to their properties such as light weight, high strength, electrical conductivity, low cost, and good mass production performance. HSJ employs stamping techniques like punching, coining, embossing, bending, blanking, and flanging to create various components such as hardware, specialty stamped hardware, electrical components, construction components, fastening solutions, and components for appliances like grills, ice machines, microwaves, cooktops, ranges, fryers, griddles, toaster ovens, disposal systems, etc.

Metal stamping machines are not only capable of stamping but also cutting, punching, casting, and shaping metal sheets into desired shapes and sizes with high accuracy, and they can be programmed to ensure production accuracy. HSJ Stamping primarily focuses on sheet metal fabrication, chassis, enclosures, cabinets, metal boxes, metal controller boxes, equipment shells, metal cases, sheet metal logos, machine covers, and more.


Types of Sheet Metal Stamping

There are a variety of metal stamping techniques that are utilized for particular applications. We've outlined some examples below.

  • Progressive Die Stamping 

The process of Progressive Die Stamping involves breaking down the manufacturing process into a sequence of stations, each with a specific function. The stock strip serves as a conveyor for the part, moving it from one station to the next until it is completed and removed from the strip.

The metal strip is initially fed from its coil into the die press and then traverses horizontally across each station. Each station performs a desired cut, bend, or punch, after which the part is transported to the next station until the entire process is completed.

Since the part remains attached to the metal strip while undergoing alterations, each movement must be precisely executed to ensure the accuracy of the end product. This level of precision and accuracy is critical to ensure the final product is both accurate and functional.

Progressive die stamping is an excellent method for mass-producing parts at a low cost, making it a popular choice for many. The longevity of the die, coupled with the ease of replicating the process multiple times, adds to its appeal. Furthermore, this technique results in minimal scrap waste.

However, without a high degree of precision and accuracy during progressive die stamping, the produced parts may not be of adequate quality.

  • Transfer Die Stamping

Transfer Die Stamping is a stamping process that is similar to progressive die stamping, but it uses a mechanical transport system to move the part from station to station instead of an automated strip. This stamping method is particularly useful for creating parts that need to be separated from the metal strip during the stamping process. This may involve a single die, or it may require multiple dies or machines in a row to create a makeshift production line.

One of the key advantages of transfer die stamping is its lower tooling costs, making it a cost-effective option for production. Additionally, it is a versatile process that can produce various features, such as cut-outs, ribs, knurls, threading, and pierced holes. This eliminates the need for secondary operations, reducing costs even further.

Transfer die stamping is suitable for a wide range of industries, including agriculture, automotive, locomotive, electronics, medical, recreational vehicles, and others. It is especially beneficial for creating larger and bulkier parts that may require the use of multiple presses.

  • Fine Blanking

Fine Blanking, also known as fine-edge blanking, is a specialized metal stamping technique that is highly effective in achieving flatness and a fully sheared edge that other methods cannot match. This process uses cold extrusion and is a single-step operation, resulting in lower fabrication costs. Fine blanking is commonly performed using a hydraulic or mechanical press or a combination of the two.

The fine blanking process involves three distinct stages. The first step is to clamp the workpiece to hold it securely in place. The second stage involves completing the blanking operation, while in the final stage, the finished part is ejected. This process is highly suited for producing parts that require flatness, such as gears, where every tooth needs to be fully engaged to ensure optimum effectiveness.

The fine blanking press runs at much higher pressures than other conventional stamping techniques. Consequently, the machinery must be robustly designed to withstand these higher pressures.

  • Four-Slide Stamping

Four-Slide Stamping, also known as multi-slide stamping, involves using four tools simultaneously to shape the metal piece into the desired form. As the metal sheet is fed through the four-slide, it is rapidly bent by each of the four shafts. This technique is highly suited to producing products that require intricate cuts or complicated bends, which may be challenging to achieve using other metal stamping techniques that use a vertical slide.

The tool slides utilized in four-slide stamping are highly efficient and straightforward, making this method ideal for creating complex or multi-part bends, including bends larger than 90 degrees. Multiple bends, punches, folds, or cuts can be accomplished in just one step, resulting in higher productivity. Furthermore, the tooling itself is relatively inexpensive, and there is minimal waste produced during the process, making it a cost-effective option for producing high-precision parts.

Types of Stamping Presses

Stamping presses are commonly classified into three types: mechanical, hydraulic, and mechanical servo. Each type is distinguished by its power source.

  • Mechanical stamping presses utilize a motor connected to a mechanical flywheel, which stores energy to power the machine. They can produce punches of varying sizes, with a speed range of 20 to 1500 strokes per minute. These presses are faster than hydraulic presses and typically have shorter stroke lengths. Electronic control, a clutch, and a brake are used to engage and disengage the press drive as needed.

  • Hydraulic stamping presses, on the other hand, use hydraulic fluid as their power source. They offer a high level of control over pressure application and can deliver full power at any point in the stroke. The pressure and velocity can be adjusted to control how fast the slide travels while the die closes. These presses are ideal for creating small, intricate parts due to their changeable stroke length and consistent pressure.

  • Mechanical servo stamping presses rely on high-capacity motors and are highly programmable, allowing for control over the stroke, slide position, motion, and speed of the press. They are the most expensive option due to their high speed and customization capabilities.

  • Stamping dies come in two types: single-station and multi-station. Single-station dies, such as compound and combination dies, are capable of performing multiple operations in a single press. Multi-station dies, including progressive and transfer dies, are used for cutting, punching, or notching operations.

  • Steel rule dies, also known as knife dies, are another type of die used in stamping presses. They were originally used on soft non-metal materials but have since been used on copper, brass, and aluminum.

HSJ, a manufacturing company, offers custom-made products through independent factory facilities and strives to provide excellent service to its customers.

How To Stamp Sheet Metal

During sheet metal stamping, a die is pressed into or through the metal with tremendous force, creating the desired shape. The force used in the process is measured in tons, and it is done with a cold-forming technique. Though no heat is used, the part can come out hot due to friction between the metal and the die from the press force.

Various operations are associated with sheet metal stamping, such as metal blanking using punching and matrices, sheet metal deep-drawing for producing metal components or finished products, sheet metal bending to obtain semi-finished products, sheet metal punching on various metals using automatic CNC machines and standard or special punches and tools, metal threading for fixing metal parts, and sheet metal laser cutting for precision cutting.

HSJ's sheet metal stamping process is widely used in the automotive, household appliances, medical, logistic, and plant system sectors, among other industries, and our independent factory facilities allow us to offer custom-made products and the best service to our customers.

Materials of Sheet Metal Forming And Stamping

Choosing the appropriate material for your final product is crucial and depends on the desired characteristics needed. Copper, steel, and aluminum alloys are commonly used materials for metal stamping. Here, we will provide a rundown of each material, including their benefits, to help you make an informed decision for your stamping project.

Factors to Consider when Selecting a Metal for Stamping

Several factors should be taken into consideration before selecting the appropriate metal for stamping, including:

  • The cost of the material and if it fits within your project's budget

  • The ease of working and shaping the material into the desired product

  • The required strength and durability of the material

  • The environmental conditions the material will be exposed to

  • The long-term benefits the material should offer

  • How the finished product will be used by clients

Considering these questions can help you narrow down the appropriate metal stamping material easily.

Copper Alloys for Metal Stamping

Copper alloys have excellent characteristics that make them ideal for many metal stamping projects. They are soft and easy to form into complex shapes and incredibly thin components. However, they are not suitable for products requiring strength and durability. The benefits that make copper alloys popular for metal stamping include:

  • Electrical and thermal conductivity

  • Corrosion resistance

  • Good malleability

  • UV radiation and temperature resistance

  • Antimicrobial properties

  • Decorative properties

Steel Alloys for Metal Stamping

Steel is one of the most common materials used for metal stamping. Steel can be alloyed with various metals to enhance specific physical properties. It can also be treated before or after the stamping process to increase hardness or corrosion resistance. The benefits of using steel alloys for metal stamping include:

  • Magnetic properties (except for most stainless steel)

  • Varying degrees of strength depending on the alloy

  • Cost-effective and easy to obtain

  • Can be treated to enhance certain properties

  • Corrosion resistance

Aluminum Alloys for Metal Stamping

Aluminum has an excellent strength-to-weight ratio, making it popular in various industries such as automotive and construction. Although aluminum alloys are often more expensive than steel alloys, they exhibit good corrosion resistance and long lifespans. Aluminum offers the following benefits for metal stamping:

  • Flexible and malleable, making it easy to form into complex shapes without becoming brittle

  • Electrical and thermal conductivity

  • Corrosion resistance

  • Low-maintenance finish

  • Rust-resistant

  • Less raw material is required for metal stamping

HSJ can help you with the entire process. We manufacture custom-made products using our independent factory facilities and aim to offer the best service to our customers. Your satisfaction is our highest priority

The Benefits of Sheet Metal Stamping for Custom Metal Parts

When it comes to metal stamping, customized OEM and ODM services offer unparalleled benefits. Customizing tooling ensures compatibility, reliability, durability, customization, and ownership, all of which are crucial attributes for any project. Here are the key advantages:

1. Compatibility with your components

Stock components rarely align perfectly with the rest of your products. Custom fabrication of parts ensures that they meet the size and shape requirements of your project. Standard Die offers a variety of metals and customization options to ensure that the fabricated parts are compatible with the components they need to work with.

2. Reliability

Customized parts benefit from working with design and engineering teams throughout the process. With their expertise, your products meet the cost and manufacturability requirements that you set forth. You can trust in the parts' performance during use because they meet your standards.

3. Accuracy of creation 

Part reliability is based on the accuracy of its creation. Professional customization services adhere to the tolerances that you specify. Even when using the parts in situations that require reliable function based on accurately formed parts, such as robotics applications or medical devices, you can trust that the customized parts will perform as expected.

4. High durability 

Durability is essential for many industries, such as aerospace applications, which require components that function in harsh environments with extreme temperatures and moisture. Customization allows you to select the most durable materials for the part's intended purpose. Choosing materials that withstand intended conditions is another way that customization excels over using standard parts.

5. Complete part customization 

Customization of metal stamping components allows you to tailor every aspect of the creation process. Standard parts may only offer options to add holes or choose the finish, but at Standard Die, we offer complete part customization. We assist you throughout the customization of your parts, including design, material selection, finish identification, and more. With over five decades of expertise backing up our suggestions and production, you can trust that we will help you create the perfect parts for your project.

6. Proprietary ownership 

With custom parts, you have proprietary ownership of the designs. This means that you have the right to use the parts exclusively for your project. This ownership allows you to avoid problems with competitors trying to recreate your products by using the same metal-stamped parts. You can rest assured that you own the rights to the design.

The Limitation Of Sheet Metal Forming And Stamping

  1. The cost and weight of press machines make them difficult to transport.

  2. Acquiring the necessary dies for metal stamping can be a time-consuming process.

  3. The use of customized dies can significantly lengthen the pre-production process.

  4. Changing dies during production, such as for a design change, can pose difficulties.

  5. It is necessary to create a sample before mass production, particularly for surface treatment, which may have some tolerance.

  6. Common issues during metal stamping include small hole distance deformation, poor fit between press plate and concave die surface, and excessive clearance.

  7. Other issues may include surface scratching, dragging and pulling during operation, and scratching of the sheet during shearing.

  8. Problems may arise when size and material do not match, or when positioning devices are damaged, loose, or tampered with.

Common Mistakes to Avoid in Sheet Metal Stamping

Learn about some common mistakes in metal stamping and how to prevent them.

  1. Punching edges can occur during the metal stamping process for various reasons, such as the knife-edge angle collapsing or wear and tear. To prevent this, the knife edge should be ground, or the layout spacing should be adjusted, and concave and convex die machining accuracy should be regulated.

  2. Chipping crush can occur due to improper feeding, the mould not being demagnetized, a gap that is too large, or sticky oil. To avoid this, ensure proper feeding, adjust design clearances or regulate concave and convex die machining accuracy, and change the oil regularly to lower viscosity.

  3. Material blockage can happen when the leakage hole is too small, or if the material starts rolling because the hole is too large. Modify or change the leakage hole to avoid this.

  4. Size variation is a common mistake that can occur due to worn concave and convex edges, inappropriate design size and gap, etc. To prevent edge wear and tear, check and examine the knife edge. Modify or change the design to achieve accuracy, and adjust the position until you get the correct position.

By choosing HSJ, you can have a higher probability of getting the right and precise product for you. With 20 years of experience and a full QC checking process, we guarantee your desired product quality. Client satisfaction is our purpose.

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