1. Basic process classification
The sheet metal stamping process can be divided into two categories: material separation and forming according to its deformation properties.
The separation process refers to the stamping process in which the blank is broken and separated under the action of the stamping force, after the stress of the deformed part reaches the tensile strength, so as to obtain the workpiece of the required shape and size.
The forming process means that under the action of the stamping force, the stress of the deformed part of the blank reaches the yield point, but does not reach the tensile strength so that the blank is plastically deformed without fracture and separation, thereby a stamping process of the workpiece of the desired shape and size is obtained.
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2. Types of separation processes
The separation process is divided into two categories: punching and refurbishment according to their different deformation mechanisms.
Punching: refers to punching the sheet material along a certain curve or straight line with a die.
Refurbishment: It is a separation processing method for reprocessing the section part of the blanked part. The refurbishment deformation is a cutting mechanism, and the dimensional accuracy and cross-sectional quality of the workpiece are better than those of the blanked part.
3. Types of molding processes
There are many forming processes, including sheet metal panel bending, stretching, flanging, bulging, and extrusion processes.
1. Introduction to the shape and forming process of blanking products
The shape of the blanked product. The section of the punched product is divided into: slump, bright band, broken band, and burr. These four forms are generated at different stages, different parts, and different stresses during the product punching process.
1) Elastic deformation stage
Force analysis: The material at the cutting edge is subjected to shear force, and the magnitude of the force is less than the elastic limit. If the force disappears, the material will return to its original state.
State description: The punch exerts pressure on the material, and the material is slightly squeezed into the edge of the die.
2) Plastic deformation stage
Force analysis: The force of the material gradually exceeds the elastic limit from the edge to the center.
Condition description: The punch goes further into the material, and at this stage, the punched part produces slumps and bright bands.
3) Shearing stage
Force analysis: The part of the stress of the material close to the edge of the die first reaches the shear strength of the material, which increases the cracks generated by the material next to the edge of the die.
At this time, the material at the edge of the punch is still in the plastic deformation stage. With the further penetration of the punch into the material, the material near the punch also reaches the shear strength and cracks also occur, and then the two cracks overlap and the material separates.
State description: The material is separated, and the upper and lower cracks are torn apart to produce burrs when the upper and lower cracks overlap.